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山西益昌升精品推荐-----清代中期宫廷漆器

文章来源: 贵州资讯网
发布时间:2019-09-22 05:08:55

  

 该图为清代中期宫廷漆盒一组,由大,小组成套盒,均为子母口,鼓腹,圈足,盒为圆形,做工精美,为古代宫廷皇室使用,盒外漆上绘有龙纹,大直径21.7,高13.6,小直径12,高7.5。具有极高的收藏价值。

 

  清王朝是我国封建社会的最后一个朝代。其前期、中期政治统一,经济强盛。清道光年间以后,由于国内阶级矛盾和民族矛盾的日益深化以及西方列强对中国的掠夺,使中国进入了半封建半殖民地社会,清王朝也逐步走向灭亡。

 

  清代康雍乾三朝的工艺美术品,如玻璃器,瓷器,珐琅器,金银器玉器,漆器等,无不制作精美,装饰华丽,体现了清代康乾盛世的气魄和时代特点。清嘉道以后,工艺美术的发展进入了低谷。其造型装饰和制作工艺等方面,水平明显下降虽偶尔也有精巧典雅之作,但总体上来说,比清前期有明显的衰退。仅就漆器而言,在清康,雍,乾时期进入漆器发展的黄金时代,主要体现在以下三个方面:

 

  第一,清代漆器是对几千年的漆器传统工艺的继承与发展。

 

  第二,漆器制作得到了皇家的重视和提倡,形成了以造办处为主的宫廷漆器制作中心,并与地方漆器生产并存,共同发展,出现了互相影响、互相借鉴的局面。宫廷造办处集中了全国各地的优秀制漆艺人为皇家服务,而地方制作的具有浓厚地方特色的漆器也以进贡的形式进入宫廷,从而极大地促进了漆器工艺的发展和提高。

 

  第三,清代漆器的制作和使用涉及到生活中的各个方面。尤以宫廷漆器最为突出,大至宫廷典章用品、陈设品,小到生活日用品、文房用品和赏玩用品。目前,尚无经过考古发现的清代漆器问世。人们所见的清代漆器都是传世品,主要收藏在北京故宫。

 

  最能代表清代漆器制作水平的是清官造办处制作的漆器,现依据北京故宫所藏,介绍清代宫廷漆器的品种和特色。

 

  1一色漆。一色漆是指器物表面上只髹一个颜色的漆器。清代制作的一色漆器有朱漆,黑漆和金漆等。

 

  黑漆与朱漆是漆工艺中最常用的装饰手法也是漆工艺中制作最多最普及的品种。黑漆与朱漆是伴随着漆工艺的产生而出现的,清代继承了这一具有几千年历史的传统工艺,制作了许多黑漆与朱漆的器物。清代制作的黑漆与朱漆器以具有实用价值的器物居多。黑漆有圆腿书桌条桌,膳案,香几砚盒,捧盒,笔管等。朱漆的有书桌,痰盂,香盒,捧盒等。这一类漆器虽无任何装饰与花纹,却以其优美的造型和纯正的漆色取胜。其中清乾隆年间制作的脱胎朱漆盘,盖碗,盒,是朱漆中的代表作。

 

  金漆就是在器物上贴金的做法。贴金的方法有贴金、上金、泥金。清代以金漆制成的漆器最著名的就是陈设在太和殿象征皇权威严神圣的金漆龙纹宝座,屏风等作品。在清代以金漆为地的漆器制作较多,其上又加其他的装饰工艺,如描金、描银、描漆等。这类漆器制品一般不划入金漆类。

 

  2描金漆。描金漆有黑漆描金与朱漆描金两种。属于清早期的描金漆器较少,且均无明确的款识。清雍正乾隆时期曾制作了大量的描金漆器。

 

  清乾隆时期的描金漆器不仅数量多器物造型变化多,而且黑漆描金,朱漆描金兼而有之,也有少数的紫漆描金、罩金漆等。罩金漆应称为描金罩漆一般是在描金花纹上再罩一层透明漆,仍可看到描金花纹。这种技法在明晚期漆器中已有,以盘居多。清代继承了这一髹漆传统,制作的器物仍然以盘为主,描绘山水景色,或花卉配以诗句。罩金漆既保护器物的金色不被磨损,又使花纹区别于描金,别具特色。

 

  3描漆与描油。在描饰类漆器中,除了描金,还有描漆与描油。

 

  描漆是早期漆器中最常使用的漆工艺即在光素的漆地上用各种色漆绘出花纹的做法,又称彩漆,描彩漆。清代漆器中具有清早期风格的描彩漆有牡丹纹长方几。清雍正时期的描彩漆作品较多。清乾隆时期描彩漆制品相对减少,带有款识的作品较少。

 

  漆画也是描漆的一种,只是色彩更为单纯更为写意。漆画是指用一种颜色漆在漆地上描绘花纹,再用黑漆、金漆或其他色漆勾描纹理。

 

  描油是以油代漆,在漆器上画出花纹的做法。描油与描漆的不同之处是描油可以调制出任何颜色,色彩变化多,纹饰绚丽多彩,取得描漆达不到的艺术效果。描油的做法早在就已使用。据考证,战国时用桐油或苏子油来调制漆,明代使用密陀僧调油漆。

 

  4描金彩漆描金彩漆是描金与描彩漆两种漆工艺的合称。清代漆器的特点之一就是多种漆工艺的综合运用,即在一件器物上应用两种或两种以上的漆工艺。清代的描金彩漆作品数量较多,造型丰富多彩,有实用品与观赏品两类。一般均以描金勾勒纹饰的轮廓及细部纹理,以彩漆描饰花纹,既金碧辉煌,又斑斓绚丽。

 

  5填漆填漆有磨显与镂嵌两种方法填漆的做法为漆胎上髹漆以后在漆面上雕浅而平的阴纹。雕成之后,以所需的色漆填入阴纹,填入之漆需浓厚或高出漆地表面经磨显才能与原漆地平滑一体,再经推光而成。填漆作品表面平滑光亮,用手抚摸时感觉细腻而润滑,具有完美和谐的艺术效果。

 

  6戗金彩漆戗金彩漆是戗金和彩漆两种工艺同时施于一器之上。戗金彩漆有两种一种是戗金填彩漆,一种是戗金描彩漆。这两种方法制成的漆器在清代同时存在,在鉴别其制作工艺时需仔细观察。这两种做法都是用戗金勾勒出花纹图案的轮廓及枝叶的细部纹理。

 

  此外,清代还有犀皮漆、款彩等漆器品种。在镶嵌类漆器中,还有嵌竹、嵌牙、嵌蜜蜡、嵌铜、嵌银丝等品种。

 

  清代漆器的发展得到了皇帝的推崇。在清宫内,漆器的应用非常广泛。其中有象征帝王权力的宝座、殿堂和房间陈设装饰品、文房用品、饮食具、宗教法器、家具、化妆用具、乐器、吉祥器具、取暖用具以及日常用的盘、碗、盖盂、冠架等。总之,在清代,漆器已经渗透到宫廷生活的每一个领域,各地官员也将漆器作为重要贡品进贡朝廷。

 

  2.清代地方漆器

 

  清代的漆器制作以宫廷造办处为中心。造办处集中了全国各地的能工巧匠,具有雄厚的物质基础。由于不惜工本,所以制作出的漆器华丽精美,代表了清代漆艺的最高水平,同时也体现了皇家的艺术风格及审美情趣。除了造办处,全国还有许多地方也制作了具有浓郁地方特色的漆器,如扬州的镶嵌漆器、福建的脱胎漆器、山西的款彩漆器、贵州的皮胎漆器等,还有苏州、杭州、四川、广东、北京等地也都制作了各具特色的漆器。

 

  (1)扬州。历史上的扬州就是重要的漆器制作地。到了清代,扬州是著名的商业城市,玉器和漆器享誉中国。扬州漆艺最高成就的是百宝嵌工艺。卢葵生便是扬卅著名的髹漆艺人。卢葵生,名栋,字葵生,世籍江都(今扬州),清嘉庆至道光年间人,精于百宝嵌工艺,传世的卢氏作品有四十余件。其中以文房用品居多,如漆砚盒、漆壶、笔筒、花盆、果盒、套盒、臂搁、琵琶等。卢葵生漆器作品常使用百宝嵌、浅刻,兼有填漆、戗金、描金、描漆等工艺。其百宝嵌作品所嵌料石极少珍贵的珠宝,而以螺钿、象牙、料珠、鸡翅木、岫岩石镶嵌而成,题材多为山石、野花、瑞禽、游鱼,巧妙组合,神态逼真。其中以故宫藏三雄图漆砚盒最具代表性。其浅刻作品有双骏图、柳燕鱼藻图、人物图等,以临摹新罗山人之作而著称,追求清淡雅致、疏朗洒脱的文人画效果。

 

  (2)福建。清代的福建以制作脱胎漆和木雕金漆而著称。清乾隆中期著名髹漆艺人沈绍安掌握了髹漆技巧,领悟到我国泥塑佛像和夹纻造法,因而创造出别具一格的脱胎漆器。沈氏所制漆器在调料时除用油料冲淡原漆(黑漆)外,主要以金粉、银粉作调合料,解决了一般漆色干后变为黝黑,难与其他鲜色颜料调和的困难,调配出许多前所未有的漆色,如珊瑚红、淡黄色、橘黄色、白色、苹果绿、松绿等鲜艳的色彩。传世的福建脱胎漆器有描彩漆、描金彩漆,多塑造佛像及神话传说人物,兼有瓶、盒、花插、笔筒、杯等日常生活用品。沈氏一族除了沈绍安,其孙沈雨生于清嘉庆年间,也是颇具才华的沈氏传人。到清光绪年间其五代孙沈正镐、沈正恂继承祖传家业,制作出大型的脱胎器皿。他们曾两次将所制漆器贡入宫中,获得一等商勋、四品顶戴的赏赐。直到目前脱胎漆器仍是福建享誉中外具有浓厚地方特色的工艺品。福建脱胎漆器在国内许多大博物馆中均有收藏,如北京故宫、上海博物馆、福建省博物馆、山东博物馆等。

 

  (3)山西。山西是我国漆器发源地之一,具有悠久的制漆工艺历史。清代的山西善制螺钿漆器、剔犀、款彩和罩金漆器。今天山西的平遥、新绛、太原仍制作彩漆、镶嵌和款彩漆器。山西制作的小柜、捧盒、首饰盒等曾以进贡的形式贡入宫廷。

 

  (4)贵州。清代的贵州以制作皮胎漆器而闻名于世。它作为地方漆器的一个品种贡入宫廷。皮胎漆器较之木胎体轻、韧度好。其制作方法为在牛皮胎上刷黑漆或朱漆作地,再在漆地上用金描绘花纹,有的则再罩上一层笼罩漆。这种做法在明代《髹饰录》中被称为“描金罩漆”。贵州所制作的皮胎描金漆器多为盘、碗、盆、盒等日常生活用品,使用价值颇高。

 

  (5)苏州。苏州是清代宫廷造办处制作雕漆的中心。清代宫廷的雕漆制品大部分都是苏州制作的,其造型、图案、款识直接受宫廷造办处指挥和控制。除了官办作坊直接为宫廷服务,地方漆器作坊也深受宫廷漆器影响,其雕刻风格是相同的。

 

  (6)杭州。杭州曾是南宋制漆的中心之一,有许多一家一户的漆器作坊。清代的杭州仍保留了过去的传统,漆器制作以一家一户为单位。目前材料所限,只知道杭州在晚期时期制作罩漆。

 

  (7)四川。在地方贡品中,四川进贡漆器的记录较少,只有有清乾隆五十二年四川布政使王站柱进贡雕漆的记载。流传至今的漆器中有一件款彩方套盒是四川制做的,盒底有篆书“四川劝工局谨制”款。此盒构图简练,纹饰疏朗,线条流畅,采用了款彩与描彩漆两种漆工艺。从此盒的款识分析,这件漆器是清代中后期由四川的官办作坊制作的,较为精致,形制也别出心裁。

 

  (8)广东。广东是清代重要的对外贸易港口,也是清代制作多种工艺品的著名之地。广东制作的象牙、家具、珐琅、玻璃、玳瑁、鼻烟壶等制品享誉京城,也是广东官员向清官进贡的主要工艺品。广东阳江市制作有别具一格的漆器,如描金花鸟长方匣,匣为木胎髹漆制成,匣内又衬皮胎,匣外以堆漆雕花而成,雕刻凸起锦纹地,在凸起处又描金,匣面饰梅花、喜雀、蝴蝶,匣内有纸条上写“怡合和”和“店在阳江城内,里仁闸上开张□造家用皮箱”。这件漆盒的工艺虽不很精致,但它的做法在清代漆器中却独树一帜,代表着一个地方的漆器品种。与此相同风格的漆器在安徽省博物馆也有收藏。

 

  (9)北京。北京漆器以雕漆为主。清乾隆以后,雕漆工艺如同清代其他工艺一样日渐衰落。公元1900年,八国联军入侵北京大肆抢掠,使宫内不少的雕漆作品或被焚毁,或者流失。清光绪、宣统年间,北京的德诚局、甫润斋等作坊对流落民间的清乾隆雕漆曾有过研究。此外,继古斋有三位师傅也制作雕漆,但他们制作的雕漆不仿古代,有其独特的做法。这几家仅有的雕漆字号的产品在当时销路很广。每年慈禧过生日时,许多大臣也购买北京雕漆作为贵重礼品贡入皇宫。民国年间,德诚局与甫润斋的产品主要供应国内市场,而继古斋的产品主要是出口。由于雕漆工艺在国内外有越来越大的声誉,销路广,在民国年间的北平,雕漆行业由两、三家发展到二十多家,从业人员也由二十多人扩大到二百余人。

 

The Qing Dynasty was the last dynasty of our feudal society. Its pre- and post-political reunification and economic prosperity. After the Qing Daoguang years, due to the deepening of domestic class contradictions and ethnic contradictions and the plundering of China by Western powers, China entered a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, and the Qing Dynasty gradually disappeared.

 

The arts and crafts of the Kangxi and Qian Dynasties in the Qing Dynasty, such as glassware, porcelain, pottery, gold and silver jade, lacquerware, etc., all exquisitely made and decorated in a gorgeous manner, reflecting the spirit and characteristics of the Qing Dynasty. After the Qing Jiadao, the development of arts and crafts entered a trough. In terms of its decoration and production process, the level has dropped significantly, although occasionally there are exquisite and elegant works, but overall, there is a clear recession compared with the early Qing period. As far as lacquer ware is concerned, in the golden age of lacquerware development during the Qingkang, 雍, and dry periods, it is mainly reflected in the following three aspects:

 

First, the Qing Dynasty lacquer ware was the inheritance and development of the traditional lacquer ware for thousands of years.

 

Secondly, the lacquer ware production has received the attention and advocacy of the royal family. The palace lacquer ware production center, which is mainly based on the establishment office, has been formed, and coexisted with the local lacquerware production, and has developed a mutual influence and mutual reference. The court office has concentrated on the excellent lacquer artists from all over the country to serve the royal family, and the locally produced lacquerware with strong local characteristics has also entered the court in the form of tribute, which greatly promoted the development and improvement of the lacquer ware process.

 

Third, the production and use of the lacquer ware of the Qing Dynasty involved all aspects of life. In particular, the palace lacquer ware is the most prominent, ranging from court articles and furnishings to small daily necessities, stationery and entertainment. At present, there is no Qing Dynasty lacquerware that has not been discovered through archaeological discoveries. The Qing Dynasty lacquer wares that people have seen are all handed down to the world, mainly in the Forbidden City in Beijing.

 

The lacquer ware made by the Qingguan Office is the one that best represents the production level of the lacquer ware in the Qing Dynasty. It is based on the collection of the Imperial Palace in Beijing and introduces the varieties and characteristics of the Qing Dynasty palace lacquer ware.

 

1 one color paint. A lacquer is a lacquer that has only one color on the surface of the object. The one-color lacquer ware made in the Qing Dynasty has lacquer, black lacquer and gold lacquer.

 

Black lacquer and lacquer are the most commonly used decorative techniques in the lacquer process and are the most popular varieties in the lacquer process. Black lacquer and lacquer lacquer appeared along with the lacquer process. In the Qing Dynasty, this traditional craft with thousands of years of history was inherited, and many black lacquer and lacquer ware were made. The black lacquer and lacquer ware made in the Qing Dynasty are mostly practical objects. The black lacquer has a round-legged desk table, a meal case, a fragrant box, a box, a pen tube, and the like. Zhu paint has desks, enamel, incense boxes, holding boxes and so on. This type of lacquer ware, without any decoration and pattern, wins with its beautiful shape and pure paint color. Among them, the lacquer plate, cover bowl and box made by Qing Emperor Qianlong were the masterpieces of Zhu lacquer.

 

Gold paint is the practice of putting gold on utensils. The method of sticking gold is gold, gold, and gold. The most famous lacquer ware made of gold lacquer in the Qing Dynasty is the works of the golden lacquer dragon throne, screens and so on. In the Qing Dynasty, there were many lacquer wares made of gold lacquer, and other decorative techniques such as gold, silver, and paint were added. Such lacquerware products are generally not classified into gold lacquer.

 

2 painted gold paint. The gold paint has two kinds of black lacquered gold and lacquered gold. There are few gold lacquer wares in the early Qing Dynasty, and there is no clear description. During the Qing Emperor Yongzheng period, a large number of gold lacquer wares were produced.

 

In the Qing Emperor Qianlong period, the gold lacquer wares not only changed the number of objects, but also the black lacquer gold, the lacquer lacquer gold, and a few purple lacquer gold and gold lacquer. The gold lacquer should be called gold lacquer. Generally, a layer of clear lacquer is placed on the gold pattern, and the gold pattern can still be seen. This technique has been used in the late lacquer wares in the late Ming Dynasty. In the Qing Dynasty, this lacquer tradition was inherited, and the utensils produced were still dominated by plates, depicting landscapes, or flowers with verses. The gold lacquer protects the gold of the utensil from being worn away, and distinguishes the pattern from the gold, which is unique.

 

3 paint and oil. In the lacquer ware, in addition to gold, there are paints and oils.

 

Paint is the most commonly used lacquer process in early lacquerware. It is the practice of drawing patterns with various color lacquers on the lacquer floor of lacquer, also known as lacquer and paint. In the Qing Dynasty lacquer ware, there was a lacquer pattern in the early Qing Dynasty style. There are many paintings and paints in the Qing Dynasty. During the Qing Emperor Qianlong period, the number of painted lacquer products was relatively reduced, and there were fewer works with models.

 

Lacquer painting is also a kind of paint, but the color is more simple and more freehand. Lacquer painting refers to the use of a color paint to paint the pattern on the paint floor, and then use black paint, gold paint or other paint to trace the texture.

 

The oil is painted with oil and painted on the lacquer. The difference between the oil and the paint is that the oil can be used to modulate any color, the color changes a lot, the ornament is colorful, and the artistic effect that the paint can't reach is obtained. The practice of oil painting has been used for a long time. According to research, in the Warring States period, tung oil or succulent oil was used to prepare the paint, and in the Ming Dynasty, the meditation was used to adjust the paint.

 

4 gold paint lacquer gold paint is a combination of two gold paint and paint process. One of the characteristics of the lacquer ware of the Qing Dynasty is the comprehensive application of various lacquering processes, that is, applying two or more lacquering techniques on one object. In the Qing Dynasty, there were a large number of gold-painted lacquer works, and there were two kinds of practical and ornamental products. Generally, the contours and detailed textures of the ornamentation are outlined in gold, and the pattern is painted with lacquer, which is both brilliant and beautiful.

 

5 paint filling paint has two methods of grinding and embedding. The method of filling paint on the paint tire is to sculpt the flat and flat grain on the paint surface. After the carving, the desired color paint is used to fill the negative lines, and the filled paint needs to be thickened or painted to be smoothed and integrated with the original paint, and then pushed. The surface of the paint-filled work is smooth and bright, and it feels delicate and lubricated when touched by hand, with a perfect and harmonious artistic effect.

 

6 戗 gold lacquer enamel lacquer is a two-layer process of sheet metal and lacquer. There are two kinds of sheet metal paints, which are sheet metal paints, and one is sheet metal paint. The lacquer ware made by these two methods existed at the same time in the Qing Dynasty and should be carefully observed when identifying the manufacturing process. Both of these methods use sheet metal to outline the outline of the pattern and the detailed texture of the foliage.

 

In addition, in the Qing Dynasty, there were also lacquer wares such as rhino skin paint and color. In the inlaid lacquer ware, there are also varieties such as inlaid bamboo, inlaid teeth, inlaid beeswax, inlaid copper, and embedded silver wire.

 

The development of the lacquer ware in the Qing Dynasty was respected by the emperor. In the Qing Dynasty, lacquerware is widely used. Among them are the thrones, temples and room decorations, the housewares, eating utensils, religious instruments, furniture, toiletries, musical instruments, auspicious appliances, heating appliances, and daily dishes, bowls, lids and crowns that symbolize the power of the emperor. Racks, etc. In short, in the Qing Dynasty, lacquer ware has penetrated into every field of court life, and local officials also tribute lacquer ware as an important tribute to the court.

 

  2. Qing Dynasty local lacquer ware

 

The lacquer ware production in the Qing Dynasty was centered on the court office. The office has concentrated on skilled craftsmen all over the country and has a solid material foundation. Because of the cost of the work, the lacquerware produced is gorgeous and exquisite, representing the highest level of lacquer art in the Qing Dynasty, and also reflects the royal art style and aesthetic taste. In addition to the establishment, there are many places in the country that have produced lacquer wares with strong local characteristics, such as the lacquer ware of Yangzhou, the lacquer ware of Fujian, the lacquer ware of Shanxi, the lacquer ware of Guizhou, and Suzhou and Hangzhou. Sichuan, Guangdong, Beijing and other places have also produced a variety of lacquer ware.

 

(1) Yangzhou. Yangzhou in history is an important lacquer making place. In the Qing Dynasty, Yangzhou was a famous commercial city, and jade and lacquerware were well-known in China. The highest achievement of Yangzhou lacquer art is the treasure inlay process. Lu Kuisheng is the famous enamel artist of Yang Lan. Lu Kuisheng, Ming Dong, the word Kwaisheng, the world capital Jiangdu (now Yangzhou), Qing Jiaqing to Daoguang years, fine in the process of engraving, there are more than 40 pieces of Lu's works handed down. Among them, there are many stationery items, such as lacquer boxes, paint pots, pen holders, flower pots, fruit boxes, kits, arm rests, shackles, etc. Lu Kuisheng lacquer works are often embedded in the treasure, shallow engraved, and have the process of filling paint, sheet metal, gold, and paint. The treasures embedded in the works are rare precious jewels, and are inlaid with snails, ivory, bead, wenge, and rock. The subjects are mostly rock, wildflower, safari, and fish. lifelike. Among them, the Forbidden City Tibetan Sanxiong paint enamel box is the most representative. His shallow works include double-horse maps, squid, and figure maps. They are famous for the work of the Xinluoshan people in Linyi, pursuing the effect of light, elegant and free-spirited literati painting.

 

(2) Fujian. Fujian in the Qing Dynasty is famous for making tire paint and wood carving gold paint. In the middle of the Qing Emperor Qianlong, the famous enamel painter Shen Shaoan mastered the lacquering technique and realized the clay sculptures and the sculpt of the clay sculptures in China, thus creating a unique lacquer ware. In addition to using oil to dilute the original paint (black paint), the lacquer ware made by Shen's is mainly made of gold powder and silver powder. It solves the problem that the general paint color becomes dark after drying, which is difficult to reconcile with other fresh color pigments. It has a lot of unprecedented paint colors, such as coral red, light yellow, orange, white, apple green, pine green and other bright colors. The hand-painted lacquer ware of Fujian has painted paint, painted gold paint, and more shaped Buddha statues and mythical legends. It also has daily necessities such as bottles, boxes, flower inserts, pen holders and cups. In addition to Shen Shao'an, the Shen family was born in the Qing Jiaqing period and was also a talented descendant of Shen. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty, his five generations of Sun Shenzheng and Shen Zhengyi inherited the ancestral family and produced large-scale reborn wares. They have twice plucked the lacquer ware into the palace, and won the first-class honours and the four-piece tops. Until now, the lacquer ware is still a handicraft with strong local characteristics in Fujian and abroad. Fujian lacquer wares are available in many large museums in China, such as the Forbidden City in Beijing, the Shanghai Museum, the Fujian Provincial Museum, and the Shandong Museum.

 

(3) Shanxi. Shanxi is one of the birthplaces of lacquerware in China and has a long history of lacquering. In the Qing Dynasty, Shanxi made a lacquer ware, a rhinoceros, a color and a gold lacquer ware. Today, Pingyao, Xinyi and Taiyuan in Shanxi still produce paints, inlays and lacquer wares. Shanxi's small cabinets, holding boxes, jewelry boxes, etc. have been admitted to the court in the form of tribute.

 

(4) Guizhou. Guizhou in the Qing Dynasty was famous for making leather lacquer ware. It tribute to the court as a breed of local lacquerware. The leather lacquer ware is lighter and tougher than the wooden carcass. It is made by brushing black lacquer or lacquer on the cowhide tire, and then painting the pattern on the lacquered floor with gold, and some are covered with a layer of lacquer. This practice was called "golden lacquer" in the Ming Dynasty. The leather lacquer wares produced by Guizhou are mostly daily necessities such as plates, bowls, pots, boxes, etc., and their use value is quite high.

 

(5) Suzhou. Suzhou is the center of the palace building in the Qing Dynasty to produce lacquer. Most of the lacquer products of the courts in the Qing Dynasty were made in Suzhou. Their shapes, patterns and models were directly directed and controlled by the court office. In addition to the government-run workshops directly serving the court, the local lacquer ware workshop is also deeply influenced by the palace lacquer ware, and its engraving style is the same.

 

(6) Hangzhou. Hangzhou used to be one of the centers of paintmaking in the Southern Song Dynasty. There are many lacquer ware workshops in one family. Hangzhou in the Qing Dynasty still retains the tradition of the past, and the lacquer ware is made in one household. At present, the material is limited, only know that Hangzhou made lacquer in the late period.

 

(7) Sichuan. Among the local tributes, there are fewer records of Sichuan tribute lacquer wares. There are only records of the tribute carvings of Wang Zhanzhu of Sichuan Buzheng in the 52nd year of Qing Emperor Qianlong. Among the lacquer wares that have been handed down to the present, there is a piece of color box set made in Sichuan. The bottom of the box is the "Sichuan Persuasion Bureau" system. The box is simple in composition, with a sleek pattern and smooth lines. It is made of two kinds of paints: color and paint. From the analysis of the box, this lacquer ware was made by the official office of Sichuan in the middle and late Qing Dynasty. It is more refined and ingenious.

 

(8) Guangdong. Guangdong was an important foreign trade port in the Qing Dynasty and a famous place for the production of various handicrafts in the Qing Dynasty. Guangdong's ivory, furniture, enamel, glass, enamel, snuff bottles and other products enjoy a good reputation in Beijing, and it is also the main craftsmanship of Guangdong officials to tribute to the Qing officials. Yangjiang City, Guangdong Province has a unique lacquer ware, such as the golden flower bird, the enamel, the enamel is made of wood enamel paint, the lining is also lined with the skin tire, the enamel is made of piled lacquer, and the embossed embossed land is convex. At the beginning, the gold is painted, and the plum blossoms are decorated with plum blossoms, flowers, and butterflies. There are paper strips on the inside of the book, "Yihehe" and "the shop is in Yangjiang City, and the Liren Gate is opened to build a household suitcase." Although the craft of this lacquer box is not very delicate, its practice is unique in the lacquer ware of the Qing Dynasty, representing a variety of lacquerware in a place. Lacquerware of the same style is also available in the Anhui Provincial Museum.

 

(9) Beijing. Beijing lacquerware is mainly made of lacquer. After the Qing Emperor Qianlong, the lacquer lacquer process faded like other crafts in the Qing Dynasty. In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied Forces invaded Beijing and looted, causing many of the lacquered works in the palace to be burned or lost. During the reign of Emperor Guangxu and Xuantong, the workshops of Decheng Bureau and Qi Runzhai in Beijing had studied the Qing dynasty lacquers. In addition, following the three masters of Gu Zhai, they also made lacquers, but the lacquers they produced were not antique, and they had their own unique practices. These only lacquered products were sold at the time. Every year, when the birthday of Cixi, many ministers also purchased Beijing lacquer as a valuable gift to enter the palace. During the Republic of China, the products of Decheng Bureau and Qi Runzhai were mainly supplied to the domestic market, while the products of Guzhai were mainly exported. Due to the growing reputation of the lacquering process at home and abroad, and the wide sales, in the Peking period of the Republic of China, the lacquer industry has grown from two or three to more than 20, and the number of employees has expanded from more than 20 to more than 200. .

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